History[ edit ] Even before independence, the Government of India maintained semi-autonomous diplomatic relations. It had colonies such as the Aden Settlementwho sent and received full missions,  and was a founder member of both the League of Nations  and the United Nations.
Introduction The Army classifies its activities during peacetime and conflict as operations other than war. Conflict is characterized by hostilities short of war to secure strategic objectives. The growing incidence of conflict pits Army forces against irregular or unconventional forces, enemy special operations forces SOF and terrorists.
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Conflict poses a threat to US interests at all times, not just in periods of active hostilities. United States citizens, especially military personnel and their families, may be at risk anywhere in the world.
The terrorist or guerrilla forces count on fear and terror as their principal weapon and objective. By attacking the defending military forces and civilian population only at times and places of their choosing, they deny the defender any safe areas and flaunt the inability of the authorities to protect themselves or their people.
By hiding among the populace and using women and children as combatants, the guerrilla or terrorist provokes the defending forces to perceive the people as unworthy of protection. The defender may adopt harsh repressive measures and commit atrocities which turn the people against the defenders.
As these events are reported in the media, the enemy expects that the home front in the US will perceive the conflict as unwinnable and immoral.
The goal for the enemy is for the US home front to abandon support for the effort and even turn against our own soldiers. Other misconduct stress behaviors, including drug and alcohol abuse and criminal acts, become the more common and serious reflectors of combat stress in light combat operations.
Tablepagelists some likely stress-producing aspects of operations other than war which involve conflict. These leaders must also recognize and defuse the political and psychological stress threat.
If they fail to do this, they may win the battles in the field but still lose the war or the post-treaty peace. Forces for military operations other than war must be selected and task-organized to fit the situation.
Combat, when it occurs, is strategically defensive and intended to permit political, social, and economic development activities. The nature of the conflict requires that coercive measures be the minimum necessary to achieve the purpose.
This will be visible to the soldier largely in terms of extremely restrictive rules of engagement. For his own sake, as well as for the success of the mission, the soldier must understand the environment in which he is to operate and fight.
The effort must complement economical, political, and military activities. This linkage with such activities must be made clear to the soldiers. Failure to do so can lead to confusion and frustration among soldiers as to the purpose, attainability, and objectives of their mission.
It supports the commander and soldier by -- Assessing information needs. Facilitating the flow of information. Serving as the primary interface between the military and the civilian media.
A key public affairs mission is to reduce the soldiers' sense of isolation by -- Reinforcing the role each soldier plays in the operation.
Ensuring information flows in and out of the theater. Telling the Army story to the public in order to maintain support for the effort and the soldiers. The following paragraphs review the operational categories and the special stressors that soldiers are likely to encounter.
Support for Insurgency Operations a. Support for insurgency is a goal-directed activity. These operations are normally of long duration and predominantly conducted by indigenous or surrogate forces. These forces are organized, trained, equipped, supported, and directed in varying degrees by an outside source.
Unconventional warfare, a tactic employed in insurgency or counterinsurgency, includes guerrilla warfare and other direct offensive, low-visibility, covert, or clandestine operations. It also includes the indirect activities of subversion, sabotage, intelligence collection, evasion, and escape.
The primary forces used in unconventional warfare are SOF. Combat stress control personnel who support such operations must have the appropriate level of security clearance to debrief and treat SOF personnel at the conclusion of their mission. Insurgency is an organized, armed, political struggle whose goal may be the seizure of power through revolutionary takeover and the replacement of the existing government.
In some cases, however, insurgency is undertaken to break away from government control and establish an autonomous state within traditional ethnic or religious territorial bounds. It may even be conducted to extract limited political concessions that are unattainable with less violent means.
Therefore, insurgents normally must live under austere or primitive conditions, have limited or no access to medical care, and often operate using hit-and-run tactics. The severity of those conditions will depend upon how much support the insurgents receive from the local population and the effectiveness of the government's repressive measures.
Issues which would contribute to combat stress, battle fatigue, and potential misconduct stress behaviors are listed in Table along with leader and buddy actions to counteract these stressors.
This is one of the things that makes counterinsurgency so difficult.Jan 03, · This past year has reminded us that the threat from foreign intelligence services is more diverse, complex, and difficult to counter than ever before.
CHAPTER 9 COMBAT STRESS CONTROL IN OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR Introduction. The Army classifies its activities during peacetime and conflict as operations other than war. International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses Congressional Research Service Summary The global illegal drug trade represents a multi-dimensional challenge that has implications for.
United States foreign policy and covert military activities. Efficacy of the United States war on drugs. USS Ten years after the introduction of the new drug policy, the percent of teens, years old, using illicit drugs has decreased from 28% to 20%. Northeast Counterdrug Training Center / COURSE CATALOG.
MISSION. The mission of the Northeast Counterdrug Training Center is to provide cost-effective counterdrug education and advanced training to fight domestic and transnational drug trafficking organizations that threaten public safety and national security.
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