Bernhardt, University of Delaware We should think less about teaching students to write, and more about how we might use writing in our classrooms in the interest of learning.
Teaching grammar without practicing or using it in context is too abstract a method for ELLs. Instead, use reading selections to highlight and practice correct English grammar.
The instructor reads aloud a text containing a repeated grammatical structure, and students listen for it. The instructor reads aloud a text.
Students listen for the grammatical structure and then do a gap-fill exercise in which they write down the grammatical form as they heard it read. Understand the Grammar Form: Students read sentences or excerpts from the text, all of which contain the target grammatical structure.
They use the examples to determine the grammar rule that applies to them. Correct the Grammar Form: Teacher give ELLs a written passage with errors in grammar. Students must identify and correct the errors. Apply the Grammar Form: Students use what they have learned about a target grammatical structure to produce writing or oral examples that integrate it.
The Language Experience Approach calls for the student to dictate a story or observation. The teacher then reads the work aloud, and afterward gives it to the student to practice reading aloud.
The text relies purely on the schemas and vocabulary of the student. The simple technique of Repeated Reading builds both fluency and comprehension.
The simplest involves a student selecting a text at his or her own reading level, or slightly above it. The student reads the text and times how long it takes. Repeating this exercise several times, the student notes how both the time and the reading improve.
In another version of Repeated Reading, a teacher reads a short text, typically selected by the student.
The teacher tracks the print with a finger while reading aloud. The teacher reads the text aloud, while the student follows along, tracking the print with a finger.
Both read the text aloud together, while the teacher tracks the print. Both read the text aloud together again, and this time the student tracks the print.
Finally, the student alone reads the text aloud and also tracks the print. It is important to note that, while the text selected for repeated reading should be stimulating and challenging, it should not include more than five words that are unfamiliar.
No amount of repeated reading will illuminate the meaning of unfamiliar words. Developing reading fluency is about the students increasing their reading speed and their smoothness of delivery. Increasing Reading Comprehension in ELLs As students learn to read fluently, it can easy to assume they understand what they read.
However, ESL teachers must use specific strategies to build reading comprehension. Background knowledge is the crux of listening and reading comprehension. If the text is nonfiction, particularly from a textbook, then further points for discussion arise, including textual cues such as subtitles, bullet points, photographs, captions, timelines, and charts.
In addition, veteran educator Dr. Some best practices include repeated reading of words, sentences, and stories; using cognates and synonyms to explain unfamiliar words and concepts; and summarizing text. Beginning ESL student might mostly copy text or fill in blanks with words from a word bank.
However, they quickly build their skills enough to write definitions of vocabulary words, write examples that support a grammatical structure, create short passages, record information on graphic organizers, answer test questions, and compose text to read aloud to the class.
Firstly, there is the act of copying a list of words learned in a lesson, or of unfamiliar words for which to find meanings. Students can slowly compile lists of words that they organize alphabetically and keep in a personal dictionary. Beginning ELLs might add pictures, color-coding or other cues to remind them of the meaning of vocabulary words.
Students can write sentences or whole passages that incorporate assigned grammatical structures. However, ESL instructors should confirm that students have a solid understanding of each form.A summation of current teaching methodologies and best practices for teaching ELLs speaking, reading and writing.
Teaching Writing. Featuring Dr. Steven Graham, Dr. Louisa Moats, and Dr. Susan Neuman in a discussion about teaching writing. These three renowned reading and writing experts address why writing is important, what the latest research tells us, and what educators and parents can do to support our children's development as writers.
10 Best Practices for Teaching Writing in the Major Courses: Multilingual Language Learners and the Need for Clear Guidelines John .
There are a number of ways to support the language and literacy development of English language learners (ELLs) that also allow students to participate more fully in classroom activities and lessons.
Best Practices for Teaching Writing: What Award-Winning Classroom Teachers Do 1st Edition by Randi B. Sofman (Editor). "This second edition, with chapters written by prominent researchers, shares the latest evidence-based practices in writing instruction and assessment.