The benefits that can be identified with Reference to International Trade are as follows: International trade allows countries to exchange good and services with the use of money as a medium of exchange.
Import substitution was heavily practiced during the midth century as a form of developmental theory that advocated increased productivity and economic gains within a country. This was an inward-looking economic theory practiced by developing nations after WW2. Many economists at the time considered the ISI approach as a remedy to mass poverty: Mass poverty is defined thusly: Mercantilist economic theory and practices of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries frequently advocated building up domestic manufacturing and import substitution.
In the early United States, the Hamiltonian economic programspecifically the third report and the magnum opus of Alexander Hamiltonthe Report on Manufacturesadvocated for the U. This formed the basis of the American School in economicswhich was an influential force in the United States during its 19th-century industrialization.
Werner Baer contends that all countries that have industrialized after the United Kingdom went through a stage of ISI, in which the large part of investment in industry was directed to replace imports Baer, pp.
Theoretical basis[ edit ] As a set of development policies, ISI policies are theoretically grounded on the Singer-Prebisch thesison the infant industry argument, and on Keynesian economics.
From these postulates, it derives a body of practices, which are commonly: By placing high tariffs on imports and other protectionist, inward-looking trade policies, the citizens of any given country, using a simple supply-and-demand rationale, will substitute the less-expensive good for the more expensive.
The primary industry of importance would gather its resources, such as labor from other industries in this situation; the industrial sector would use resources, capital, and labor from the agricultural sector. In time, a third-world country would look and behave similar to a first-world country, and with a new accumulation of capital and an increase of TFP total factor productivity the nation's industry would, in principle, be capable of trading internationally and competing in the world market.
In many cases, however, these assertions did not apply. On several occasions, the Brazilian ISI process, which occurred from until the end of the s, involved currency devaluation as a means of boosting exports and discouraging imports thus promoting the consumption of locally manufactured productsas well as the adoption of different exchange rates for importing capital goods and for importing consumer goods.
Moreover, government policies toward investment were not always opposed to foreign capital: Volkswagen, Ford, GM, and Mercedes all established production facilities in Brazil in the s and s.
The principal concept underlying ISI can thus be described as an attempt to reduce foreign dependency of a country's economy through local production of industrialized products, whether through national or foreign investment, for domestic or foreign consumption. It should be noted, as well, that import substitution does not mean import elimination: Local ownership import substituting[ edit ] InMichael Shuman proposed Local ownership import substituting LOISas an alternative to neoliberalism.
It rejects the idelogy of there is no alternative. The initial date is largely attributed to the impact of the Great Depression of the s, when Latin American countries, which exported primary products and imported almost all of the industrialized goods they consumed, were prevented from importing due to a sharp decline in their foreign sales.
This served as an incentive for the domestic production of the goods they needed. Positivist thinking, which sought a "strong government" to "modernize" society, played a major influence on Latin American military thinking in the 20th century. The tariffs were designed to allow domestic infant industries to prosper.
Thus, smaller and poorer countries, such as EcuadorHondurasand the Dominican Republiccould implement ISI only to a limited extent. Peru implemented ISI inand the policy lasted through to the end of the decade in some form. In Latin American countries in which ISI was most successful, it was accompanied by structural changes to the government.
Old neocolonial governments were replaced by more-or-less democratic governments. Banks and utilities and certain foreign-owned companies were nationalized or had their ownership transferred to local businesspeople.
Many economists contend that ISI failed in Latin America and was one of many factors leading to the so-called lost decade of Latin American economics, while others[ who?
As noted by one historian, ISI was successful in fostering a great deal of social and economic development in Latin America: Infant mortality fell from per 1, live births in to 69 per 1, in[and] life expectancy rose from 52 to 64 years.
Import substitution denies the country the benefits to be gained from specialisation and foreign imports. The theory of comparative advantage shows how countries will gain from trade. Moreover, protectionism leads to dynamic inefficiency, as domestic producers have no incentive from foreign competitors to reduce costs or improve products.
Import substitution can impede growth through poor allocation of resources, and its effect on exchange rates harms exports. In most cases, the lack of experience in manufacturing and the lack of competition, reduced innovation and efficiency, which restrained the quality of Latin American produced goods, and protectionist policies kept prices high.
Contrary to its intent, import substitution exacerbated inequality in Latin America.alphabetnyc.com is the Federal Government's premier electronic source for the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). It contains Product Service Codes (PSC), the Federal Service Contract Inventory, FAR Archives, eBook versions of the FAR, optimized search engine for the FAR and other resources to improve Acquisition for contracting professionals.
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