Poor sexual health outcomes for sexual minority women

Responses to discrimination and psychiatric disorders among black, Hispanic, female, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Am J Public Health.

Poor sexual health outcomes for sexual minority women

Suggested Policies and Procedures Download: Several Association documents identify important elements of such an environment. Whereas the prevention and management of sexual-harassment incidents are generally considered to fall within the purview of campus policy and procedures, incidents of sexual violence and sexual assault may constitute criminal offenses, require medical attention, and raise special concerns about reporting, record keeping, media attention, and police involvement.

Consequences of Sexual Assault The consequences of sexual assault are potentially very serious. An immediate concern is physical injury, which may be extensive enough to require medical treatment or hospitalization.

College students who have survived sexual assault rarely perform at their prior academic levels, are sometimes unable to carry a normal course load, and frequently miss classes.

These changes stem sometimes from social withdrawal, sometimes from a desire to avoid the perpetrator. Assaulted students regularly drop courses altogether, leave school, or transfer. Along with decline in academic performance and social withdrawal, long-term outcomes may include increased risk of depression, substance abuse, self-harm, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress, personality disorders, and suicide.

Second, they cast doubt on stated commitments by campus leaders to end campus violence. Closer coordination with trained law-enforcement officials, for example, increases the likelihood that incidents will be more fully investigated and adjudicated. In terms of the conviction and punishment of perpetrators, however, the outcomes are not much better for cases handled by the criminal justice system.

In only one of those four cases was the attacker another student, though student-to-student assault is the most common form of sexual assault on campuses. Federal Laws on Sexual Assault and Related Crimes Title IX requires institutions of higher education to report incidents of sexual violence and to track patterns of sexual misconduct and other behaviors that create a hostile environment for women.

InCongress enacted a law that requires all two- and four-year colleges and universities to file annual reports with the federal government on campus crime, and campus security amendments passed in, and further require campuses to develop and disseminate prevention policies, make specific assurances to victims, and report an expanded set of crime categories, including hate crimes.

Definitions and classifications differ according to state, jurisdiction, investigatory agency, and institution; so do the campus, legal, and criminal status of specific acts and their penalties. This patchwork of laws and definitions confuses efforts to address campus sexual assault; indeed, roughly two-thirds of campuses file Clery Act reports incorrectly.

A further complication is identified in a report on Clery to Congress: Most reports of sexual assault on campus are handled administratively.

A perpetrator found in violation of campus policy may be disciplined in a variety of ways, including suspension or expulsion. At the same time, campus authorities are often reluctant to refer incidents to the criminal justice system and thereby yield control of the proceedings, opening them to public as well as media scrutiny.

In the aftermath of the Penn State scandal, for example, media reports as well as statements to the press by college and university leaders revealed uncertainty about the meanings of and distinctions among such terms as sexual assault, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and rape.

Given the state-by-state patchwork of terms and statutes, this uncertainty is perhaps to be expected. Research on Clery reporting, however, also indicates confusion over the meaning of student, campus, crime, and other terms central to Clery reporting mandates.

While a small number of institutions have put in place rigorous procedures for obtaining, collating, tracking, processing, and reporting Clery statistics, a standardized model for the overall process does not yet exist.

Accordingly, as with terminology, practices may be very different from one campus to the next. This inconsistency is confirmed by a study by the Center for Public Integrity: As of this writing, however, such coordination is the exception rather than the rule. Once policies and procedures are in place, the institution must make them widely available.

Early in the policy-development process, the institution needs to determine the rules, definitions, laws, reporting requirements, and penalties that pertain to sexual assault in the local criminal justice system.

Guidelines for reporting an incident of sexual assault should be clear and explicit and include names, titles, and contact information.

The policy should encourage victims to report the incident to campus authorities and to off-campus police, and should generally indicate what each procedure entails and what purpose the reporting will serve. The reporting of sexual assault is essential for accurate record keeping and to prevent repeat offenses.

Given the widespread underreporting of sexual assault, reporting should be facilitated as much as possible—for example, by providing for direct reporting by name, confidential reporting, and anonymous reporting.

Some campuses provide for third-party reporting; others have developed systems for centrally collating reported incidents from all sources without double-counting.

Poor sexual health outcomes for sexual minority women

Ideally, a single official or office should be charged with overseeing and coordinating the many responsibilities associated with allegations of sexual assault. The name and contact information for the individual and office should be widely publicized; preferably a live responder would be available round the clock.

Again, all information should include the name and contact information of experienced campus officers as well as contact information for campus and appropriate off-campus law-enforcement officials.

Workshops and training sessions should play a continuing role in campus education. While education and prevention efforts typically focus on women, the most likely victims of sexual assault, campuses should also direct education toward men, the most likely perpetrators.

Education and training programs for men have the potential to change the culture of the campus with respect to sexual violence of all forms. Such programs explore what men can do, individually and collectively, to prevent these crimes.It's a New Day in Public Health.

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1 IN 5 U.S. MEN ADMITS TO VIOLENCE AGAINST SPOUSE, PARTNER, HealthDay News, HealthDay, September 16, Copyright © HealthDay. 9 in 10 Adults Say Family. Racial and social class differences in children’s experiences with parental incarceration. By the age of 14, approximately 25 percent of African American children have experienced a parent—in most cases a father—being imprisoned for some period of time.

Unintended Pregnancy in the United States. On average, U.S. women want to have two children. To accomplish that goal, a woman will spend close to three years pregnant, postpartum or attempting to become pregnant, and about three decades—more than three-quarters of her reproductive life—trying to avoid an unintended pregnancy.[]For a range of social and economic reasons, most individuals. Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services are a wide range of preventive care services, critical to reproductive and sexual health. This service is available to all women, men and adolescents regardless of income on a sliding fee scale, through their local health department. This is a list of CDC branded violence prevention publications. These publications are designed for a variety of audiences, such as professional health practitioners, researchers, and the general public.

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Sexual and Reproductive Health - However, many experience poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes due to the underutilisation of sexual health services, lack of knowledge, and social stigma associated with discussions of sexuality. Women and reproductive health in a graying world.

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