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Rivalry In the traditional economic model, competition among rival firms drives profits to zero. But competition is not perfect and firms are not unsophisticated passive price takers. Rather, firms strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals.
The intensity of rivalry among firms varies across industries, and strategic analysts are interested in these differences.
The Concentration Ratio CR is one such measure. The CR indicates the percent of market share held by the four largest firms CR's for the largest 8, 25, and 50 firms in an industry also are available. A high concentration ratio indicates that a high concentration of market share is held by the largest firms - the industry is concentrated.
With only a few firms holding a large market share, the competitive landscape is less competitive closer to a monopoly. A low concentration ratio indicates that the industry is characterized by many rivals, none of which has a significant market share.
These fragmented markets are said to be competitive. The concentration ratio is not the only available measure; the trend is to define industries in terms that convey more information than distribution of market share. If rivalry among firms in an industry is low, the industry is considered to be disciplined.
This discipline may result from the industry's history of competition, the role of a leading firm, or informal compliance with a generally understood code of conduct. Explicit collusion generally is illegal and not an option; in low-rivalry industries competitive moves must be constrained informally.
However, a maverick firm seeking a competitive advantage can displace the otherwise disciplined market. When a rival acts in a way that elicits a counter-response by other firms, rivalry intensifies.
The intensity of rivalry commonly is referred to as being cutthroat, intense, moderate, or weak, based on the firms' aggressiveness in attempting to gain an advantage. In pursuing an advantage over its rivals, a firm can choose from several competitive moves: Changing prices - raising or lowering prices to gain a temporary advantage.
Improving product differentiation - improving features, implementing innovations in the manufacturing process and in the product itself.
Creatively using channels of distribution - using vertical integration or using a distribution channel that is novel to the industry. For example, with high-end jewelry stores reluctant to carry its watches, Timex moved into drugstores and other non-traditional outlets and cornered the low to mid-price watch market.
Exploiting relationships with suppliers - for example, from the 's to the 's Sears, Roebuck and Co. Sears set high quality standards and required suppliers to meet its demands for product specifications and price.The Five Forces is a framework for understanding the competitive forces at work in an industry, and which drive the way economic value is divided among industry actors.
First described by Michael Porter in his classic Harvard Business Review article, Porter’s insights started a revolution in. Named for its creator Michael Porter, the Five Forces model helps businesses determine how well they can compete in the marketplace.
Developing a competitiveness model for South African National Parks WH Engelbrecht Developing a competitiveness model for the South African National Parks ABSTRACT model for SANParks by using the Kruger National Park as case study.
The Kruger. Porter's Five Forces A MODEL FOR INDUSTRY ANALYSIS. The model of pure competition implies that risk-adjusted rates of return should be constant across firms and industries. Porter's Five Forces Analysis on SANParks / Kruger National Park’s of 29 Mar Intensity of Existing Rivalry Government limits competition (Rhino Sales Industry) Government policies and regulations can dictate the level of competition within the industry.
BirdLife South Africa e-Newsletter: September IBA team meeting. As members of the Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) team are scattered around South Africa, the annual team meeting is a great platform for getting to know each other better and exchanging and discussing ideas.