Even for individual issues, families, organizations, societies, and other systems are inherently involved and must be considered when attempting to understand and assist the individual.
Advanced Search Abstract This article discusses the application of the ecological model to formative research in a practical setting of a training program developed for the Child Growth Monitoring Project of the New York State WIC program.
The ecological model was selected to guide the formative research because it offered a concrete framework to account for the reciprocal interaction of behavior and environment. This model describes five levels of influence on behavior: Because we knew from the start that the intervention would focus on training, we focused our efforts on collecting data at those ecological levels that we considered potentially amenable to change through a training program—individual WIC providers and clientsinterpersonal provider—client interaction and organizational physical layout of WIC sites and sequence of activities.
However, our experiences both with the training program and the post-training evaluation, using ecological theory, indicated the fallacy of failing to apply the ecological model consistently throughout the formative research.
Therefore, for maximum effect when using the ecological model, it is recommended that the whole model be applied at all stages of formative research: A matrix is presented for monitoring complete application of the model.
Introduction Using formative research methods to conduct needs assessment provides data for strategy development and identification of objectives Helitzer-Allen and Kendall, They are used for development of behavior change programs both in the US and in developing countries Flora and Farquhar, ; Lefebvre and Flora, ; Schechter et al.
Formative research presents information on target audience beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to the health problem of interest, and seeks to answer questions about the context that influences, and is influenced by, these individual factors.
In designing and implementing formative research, it is useful to apply a conceptual framework to help describe contextual influences on behavior and assess optimal intervention entry points Clark and McLeroy, The Precede—Proceed model conceptualizes the reciprocal relationship between behavior and environment into three groups of influential factors Green and Kreuter, Predisposing factors are those that make a health-conducive lifestyle change possible, such as information or availability of products necessary for the new behavior.
Enabling factors are those skills needed to implement the new behavior; and reinforcing factors are supporting values and social norms that help individuals maintain the new behavior. The ecological model McLeroy et al. The ecological framework has gained increased recognition in the field of health promotion McLeroy et al.
Some researchers have used social ecology to guide program development. These data were used both for formative advising program development and refinement and for summative assessing program effect purposes.
There is a paucity of literature, however, that critically examines the systematic application of the ecological model to formative research and issues inherent in such a process. This article discusses the application of the ecological model to formative research in a practical setting of developing a training program.
The example is drawn from formative research designed to help develop session content for a training program devoted to plotting and interpreting growth data, nutrition education and counseling for growth monitoring for providers involved in the Child Growth Monitoring Project CGMP of the New York State Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children WIC.
The objectives of the formative research were to obtain information on provider and client perceptions of growth monitoring and counseling, counseling practices of WIC providers, and the organization of the WIC visit around growth monitoring. Main research questions are presented in Table I.
We chose the ecological model to guide us in developing this research because it offered a concrete framework to account for the behavior—environment interaction in a practical setting.
Because we knew from the start that the intervention would focus on training, we focused our efforts on collecting data at those ecological levels that we considered potentially amenable to change through a training program—individual, interpersonal and organizational.
Sites were selected by state-level WIC staff familiar with the CGMP and selection was based on individual constraints of WIC agencies during the research period, such as availability of providers involved in growth monitoring and schedule of growth monitoring activities.
Data collection was scheduled to coincide with times of intense activity at WIC sites when clients were certified or recertified to receive WIC benefits every 6 months. Table I shows which methods tapped into which research questions at which ecological level. For clarity, Table I presents all methods used in the research, although only examples of the resulting findings are discussed here.
Unstructured field guides were developed for each type of data collection method. All samples were purposively selected, according to appropriateness of informant providers involved in growth monitoring, or designated caretaker of a WIC-enrolled infant or childavailability and willingness to be interviewed or observed.
Informed consent was obtained from all informants.Theory Culture and Society. ISSN Item availablity Toms Shoes: The Buy-one-give-one Social Enterprise Business Model. The Case Centre. Item availablity restricted. Dieckvoss, Stephanie () Central Saint Martins, University Understanding Landscape through lllustration, 10 & 11 November , Edinburgh .
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of another designer or manufacturer’s work. It is a controversial practice of the . Ecosystems theory was an offshoot of functionalism, ecological theory, dynamic system theory, and many other psychological and developmental theories, it is also known as the ecological perspective and the life model (Canda, Chatterjee, and Robbins, ).
systems, the paper identifies family, partner, school, work, health care, neighborhood, poverty, and ethnicity as critical ecological systems in the lives of the adolescent and her child. Ecological Systems Theory in Social Work Max Siporin State University of New York, Albany Follow this and additional works at:alphabetnyc.com sider some current issues around its use in social work practice.
Ecological Systens Model and Theory What is now ca1led "Ecological Systems Theory,rr and the nodels of prac-. It addresses the needs of social workers working in a variety of areas--including assessment and diagnosis, clinical social work, marital and family therapy, community practice, case management.