Commercials appeal to children, however, these did not become commonplace until the advent and widespread adoption of television.
Open in a separate window Source: Marketers believe that brand preference begins before purchase behavior does. Requests are often for the brand name product.
Preschool children made more requests than the older elementary school children. Central to any discussion on food advertising to children is the nature of children's comprehension of advertising.
Numerous studies have documented that young children have little understanding of the persuasive intent of advertising. Because of their level of cognitive development, children under 8 years of age are viewed by many child development researchers as a population vulnerable to misleading advertising.
Preteens, from ages years, possess the cognitive ability to process advertisements but do not necessarily do so. Adolescents still can be persuaded by the emotive messages of advertising, which play into their developmental concerns related to appearance, self-identity, belonging, and sexuality.
Food Advertising and Marketing Channels Multiple channels are used to reach youth to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. Youth-oriented marketing channels and techniques include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins.
The channels used to market food and beverages to youth are described below.
Television advertising The largest single source of media messages about food to children, especially younger children, is television. It is estimated that US children may view between 20, — 40, commercials each year [ 24 ] and by the time they graduate from high school may have been exposed totelevision ads.
The most frequently advertised food product was high sugar breakfast cereal. There were no advertisements for fruits or vegetables. Several other studies have documented that the foods promoted on US children's television are predominantly high in sugar and fat, with almost no references to fruits or vegetables.
An international comparative survey of television advertising aimed at children was recently conducted by Consumers International, a non-profit organization consisting of a federation of consumer organizations. The findings showed that Australia, US and UK had the most food advertisements, between 10 and 12 an hour or about in a 20 hour period.
This was twice as many advertisements as in Denmark, Germany and France, and between 6 to 10 times more than in Austria, Belgium and Sweden. Food products comprised the largest category of all advertisements to children in virtually all countries.
Confectionery, breakfast cereals mainly sweetenedand fast food restaurants accounted for over half of all food advertisements. Confectionery was the largest category accounting for nearly a fifth of all food advertising.
In-school marketing During the past decade in the US, use of public schools as advertising and marketing venues has grown.The national health initiatives, strategies, and action plans listed on this page can help guide public health professionals in their public health planning and activities.
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Since , childhood obesity rates have tripled among adolescents and doubled among younger children. While many factors contribute to childhood obesity, regardless of the causes, responsible marketing can play a positive role in improving children's diets and physical activity level.
Health promotion goes beyond health education and disease prevention, in as far as it is based on the concept of salutogenesis and stresses the analysis and development of the health potential of.
Teaching interests. Professor John Coveney has taught the following programmes: Master of Public Health, Doctorof Public Health, Master of Health and International Development, Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics and Master of Nutrition and Dietetics.