The novel has been translated into a large number of languages and has sold millions of copies. It is still being reprinted and read with undiminished interest by new readers. He has, however, gradually confirmed his position as a rare storyteller, richly endowed with a material from imagination and experience which seems inexhaustible. His international successes have continued.
History The history of Latin American philosophy is usefully divided into five periods: Pre-Columbian, Colonial, Independentist, Nationalist, and Contemporary that is, the twentieth century to the present.
Most periods are characterized by the dominance of a particular tradition: However, the contemporary situation is more complex and varied. For that reason, it is discussed in a separate and subsequent section, apart from the other historical periods that are the focus of this section.
There is good evidence that in at least the major pre-Columbian civilizations there were attempts to explore questions about the nature of reality, the limits of knowledge, and the basis of right action. Moreover, such work persisted in various forms for some time after the Conquest Restrepo ; Maffie Whether this body of work is rightly characterized as philosophy or something else is a disputed matter, with scholars disagreeing about how best to characterize it see Nuccetelli,ch.
It is clear that the reflective and speculative work of pre-Columbian Amerindian peoples was undertaken without any familiarity with the Western philosophical tradition.
Those inquiries were also generally undertaken within the religious frameworks of their places and times and the literary or presentational modes in which such questions were entertained were typically removed from traditional forms of European philosophical production.
Despite these differences with European philosophy, and despite the often fragmentary and frequently second-hand information that survives concerning pre-Columbian thought, extant works have nevertheless supported a variety of intriguing and subtle accounts of those philosophical or proto-philosophical reflections.
Scholasticism, introduced by the Spanish and Portuguese clergy that arrived with the conquistadores, was the dominant philosophical perspective. Most of the work produced during the first two centuries in the colonies was cast in the framework used in the Iberian peninsula.
It was particularly indebted to the thought of both sixteenth-century Iberians and their medieval predecessors. Most of these authors were born in the Iberian peninsula, but many of them had settled in the colonies.
Sor Juana has the distinction of being the first Latin American thinker to raise questions concerning the status of women in Latin American society. She is also retrospectively regarded as the first Latin American feminist writer and philosopher see also the section on feminist philosophy, below.
The eighteenth century, under the influence of modern philosophy and the Enlightenment, helped prepare the way for the revolutionary wars of independence.
Philosophical discussions of the time were dominated by political thought. Even so, scholasticism continued to influence the intellectual class and stoked an ongoing interest in traditional metaphysical questions. However, the wave of independentist thought found its greatest inspiration in Enlightenment political philosophy.
In particular, liberal political ideals based on the thought of the French philosophes helped to consolidate independentist views throughout Latin America. In the early 19th century, many Latin American countries secured independence from European colonial powers.
In the wake of independence, the newly liberated peoples faced the challenge of forming stable, enduring nations out of the remnants of the Spanish and Portuguese empires. The predominant political concerns of that era included the organization and consolidation of the new nations, along with aspirations for social stability, national integration of largely diverse peoples.
The overarching ambition in many nations was to achieve the same economic and social progress enjoyed by other nations in Europe and North America. In this context, the ideology of choice was a version of positivism.
Indeed, positivism became so influential and widely accepted by intellectuals that it became the official state philosophy of several nations. It was even used to justify dictatorial regimes, as in the case of Mexico.
Positivism of the Latin American variety was derived from a peculiar mix of European ideas primarily originating in the thought of Auguste Comte —Herbert Spencer —and Ernst Haeckel — The period of positivist hegemony, in which it was the dominant philosophical perspective in Latin America, extended roughly from the middle of the nineteenth century to the first decade of the twentieth.
The Contemporary Period Contemporary Latin American philosophy begins in the twentieth century, aroundcoinciding with the decline of positivism.
Bythe remaining positivists in Latin America were usually regarded as museum pieces rather than proponents of a viable philosophy meriting serious attention. The contemporary, post-positivist period can be divided into three distinct sub-periods.The AHLOT is an ongoing collection of recorded interviews and readings of contemporary poets and prose writers from the Iberian Peninsula, Latin America, the Caribbean, and U.S.
Hispanics, which has been compiled by this Division since the s. Latin American Literature > Spanish American literature ; Cite. Spanish American literature. Introduction. Spanish American literature, the writings of both the European explorers of Spanish America and its later inhabitants.
See also Spanish literature ; Portuguese literature ; Brazilian literature. American Modernism. Known as "The Lost Generation," American writers of the s brought Modernism to the United States.
For writers like Hemingway and Fitzgerald, World War I destroyed the illusion that acting virtuously brought about good. Like their British contemporaries, American Modernists rejected traditional institutions and forms. From Mexico all the way down to Tierra del Fuego, Latin America is a diverse region.
However, it’s fair to say that most of its countries have two things in common. One, a troubled history, and two. This guide to selecting multicultural literature is intended to encourage broader use of this literature by offering guidelines for selecting titles.
Guidelines are unfortunately still necessary, because culturally biased books continue to be published and even to to receive awards.
Two prominent terms, “Latino” and “Hispanic,” refer to people living in the United States who have roots in Latin America, Spain, Mexico, South America, or Spanish-speaking Caribbean.